As a carpenter, I now need £6,000 worth of tools, NVQ2, cscs, asbestos aware, face fit mask, tower scafold permit, saftey harness certificate, nail gun certificate. The list goes on. Yes companies make a profit from their workers productivity, but they are now making a profit by shifting costs onto workers. You might be interested to know that the Arab spring was triggered by an occupational licence. Carry on, keep denying the poorest access to jobs and see where it gets you! And by the way I have been a carpenter for 37 years, I am a damn sight safer than someone with 2 years experience and an NVQ2.